Modes of transport have greatly evolved ever since the first paved roads to be on earth. Nowadays you can even specialize in the study of roads and infrastructure and study infrastructural engineering. Now roads have many varieties and forms in order to ensure that the roads are a safe place for civilians. Specific measurements need to be taken in all situations to ensure that safety is maintained. Such structures were never a paramount factor in the past but with the rise of stringent health and safety regulations nearly every aspect of life is shrouded by do, don’t and never.
When it comes to roads the main differences between them will be speed limits, railings, the type of car that can drive on it and the roads overall structure. Even different nations will have different types of roads. These do not pose as global motorist barriers but are just modern adaptations to the relevant culture of the country.
The only rule of the road that has arisen from the times of old is regarding the side of the road we drive on. Everyone travelled on the left-hand side to accommodate to violent communities. Most people where right-handed and so when they draw their sword from their casket it will more than likely be drawn from the left side allowing them to quickly swathe their opponent. Also, it is easier for right handed people to mount on a horse from the left side of the horse. Instead of dismounting into the moving traffic if the traffic was moving on the right flowing dismounting on the left side of the road is safer.
Roads are made of many differing materials and for many reasons. In the beginning roads where made of mud or clay. Nowadays roads are made from many materials including bituminous, concrete, gravel and earth. Earthen roads are less popular but are laid with soil. They are cheap because essentially soil is being derived from the earth with ease and without the need to use expensive machinery. Earthen roads are only used for areas of low traffic such as rural locations. A well-structured drainage system is required to ensure that the road will remain sturdy and fully functional.
Gravel roads is another type ‘budget material’ for the construction of roads. They are better than earthen roads. Gravel and earth can be mingled together to be used as pavement material. Cement concrete is used to construct the pavements in case of concrete roads. These are very popular and costlier than all other types of roads. They are not flexible so, they require less maintenance.
Now in terms of road type there are two major road types that dominate globally. Those are national roads and motorways (also called highways). A national road connects towns and cities to the capital. There are usually 2 lanes on a national road. With motorways there can be up to 4 lanes (UK) and 8 lanes (US). The general speed around all nations averages at about 100 km/h.